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Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition software. McCulloh On July 26, , an event occurred on the Pennsylvania frontier so shocking that it has been vividly remembered and retold for over years. Interviews Stanley Kubrick "I might try to make something of an imperfect story with my efforts as a writer, but I would never attempt to film a story that I was not finally in love with.
And victory is what she found. The love within her made her special. She kept pushing her way through all of her struggels.
Rough or fine grind, it's your life, so make the change, one cup of joe at a time. Joseph Braithwaite Worried you're an average Joe? You're not. The statement that a pidgin becomes a creole when it gains its first native speakers Muysken, Smith makes this distinction crucial in reference to the use of the two terms.
At the structural level some differences between pidgin and creole type are also noted, but they are not so much characteristic and therefore a common creole-like type of structure may be distinguished. Even though pidgins are perceived to be mixed languages based on European languages especially English and French , there are some examples of pidgins based on two indigenous languages, i.
The above- mentioned creoles and pidgins are supposed to demonstrate that the process of creating new languages is universal and that a basis for a new language is not necessarily a European language. The interest in pidgins and creoles appeared in the 19th century, but the first references to this group of languages are found in the literature as early as at the beginning of this century, when some scientists started to examine Latin as a basis for some European languages. It is also the time when the creolistics arose as separate field of knowledge.
From that time until now researchers analyse pidgin and creole languages in terms of their origin, typology and features Muysken, Smith Since the 15th century, the attention of scientists has also been focused on the study of African languages. The first tasks of African linguistics were related to the classification of languages, the division of language families into groups, the recognition of their salient features and the establishment of the main characteristics of African languages at all levels of their structures.
It was especially the intensive research of the 20th century that made the achievements of African linguistics in the field of language classification and typology quite significant. It should be also added that many African languages have been examined in an in-depth manner, scholars wrote grammars of these languages and presented descriptions of their structural peculiarities. Due to reconstruction, the paths of their development are already known, but the analysis of language development-related processes continues to be performed.
In the current studies on language history, the focus is shifted to issues related to innovations rather than common genetic affinities.
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Therefore, the research interests turn to language acquisition, adapting lexical and structural borrowings and word formation processes. Simultaneously, current research also deals with common features both inside and across language families. The achievements of African linguistics had played a significant role in creolistic research. Structures which are common in African languages and which represent typological patterns of creole languages include the following: frequent reduplication, predicate cleft, TMA markers Lefebvre In view of this, pidgins and creole languages are also examined in the light of universal features.
As they are perceived as young and still developing languages, they might constitute a basis for the examination of universal language development processes Muwfene At the same time, these examinations may help to discover the particular features of creoles as such. Moreover, the examination of creole-like structures could not be possible without the achievements of areal linguistics.
The idea of a territorial unit relevant for linguistic studies stipulates that there exist a group of languages, which occur in the same geographical region and share structural features Muysken They have been distinguished in many zones around the world, i.
It should be mentioned that the idea of Sprachbund basically covers grammatical patterns, but it also includes lexicon diffusion and sociolinguistic aspects Pawlak The common contact in the border areas and between the above-mentioned genetic language families has caused a diffusion and a convergence of genetic and typological features. West Africa, as a part of the continent, constitutes a unique example of a convergence area. Its location at the intersection of Afroasiatic, Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo families caused the emergence of lexical and grammatical features which are shared across family borders.
As it is also a politically unstable area, various political changes were followed by language diffusion. In this multilingual region Hausa, Kanuri and Mande have become linguae francae of the area and had influenced other local languages. In the process of language diffusion, one should not disregard the significant role of Arabic in West Africa. The existence of many Arabic loanwords in the languages of West Africa makes the whole region a specific cultural area Pawlak Even though its influence is limited mainly to the lexicon and religious phrases such as: as-salamu alaikum, allahu akbar, inshallah which function in different variants in many languages, structural modifications have also been noted Versteegh In the colonial period, European languages have played a key role in the linguistic integration of the region.
In the whole area, there are many languages of this type. They are based either on Portuguese, such as Crioulo 3 In African linguistics this area is usually described as the Sahel-Sahara zone. Ghanian Pidgin English Ghana , but also French, i. Kamtok Camerun. A specific example in the zone is constituted by Krio, which was established by settlers brought to Sierra Leone from various parts of the world.
When slave trade was outlawed in , four groups, namely the Black Poor from England, American slaves from Nova Scotia, Jamaican Maroons and Recaptives also known as Liberated Africans started to communicate each other in Krio Finney In the last few decades West Africa, perceived as a common linguistic area, is the object of intensive study.
The main research interests focus on phonology and phonological rules of loanword adaptation. Special attention is devoted to syllable structure due to the fact that in many African languages it is based on regular patterns, which are strictly preserved in the process of borrowing.
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However, the main achievements in the study of the convergence areas in West Africa refer to mutual influences between the languages in reference to the lexicon Mukarovsky and the involvement of a common lexicon in the processes of grammaticalization Ziegelmeyer Almost all languages of the area have a tense, mood, aspect system in the form of a preverbal marker, i.
IMPF come out. PF spend long time NEG 3f. Apart from structures mentioned above which are also relevant to the languages of this group, a set of characteristic features have been distinguished which are shared by the languages of the area, irrespective of their genetic affiliation. The following examples from Hausa Chadic, Afroasiatic , Ewe, Yoruba, Twi, Fulfulde Niger-Congo , Kanuri Nilo-Saharan are supposed to demonstrate similarities in conceptual patterns of the creation grammatical structures.
These patterns are applicable to languages whose typological features are different. It is relevant to the creation of the so-called pluractional verbs, which code repetition and continuity as well as other notions , i.
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It is based on a copula or the use of verbless sentences, i. Possible influences may be identified in the structure of these languages which have been comprehensively described and interpreted in terms of linguistic categories. In the context of areal influences, these features are hardly identified as direct borrowings, but rather as a manifestation of language patterns which are widely used in neighbouring languages.
It is spoken by approximately million people Caron, Egbokhare Its development is closely connected with the history of contacts between Europeans and West African societies, but its current status and future prospects are linked with Nigeria. It arose in the 15th century when Portuguese traders reached the Nigerian coast Esizimetor It was established as a regular means of communication between the European colonial masters and indigenous people, when the British started to colonize Nigeria in the 17th century Balogun At this stage the language was marginalized in the communication, it was perceived as broken English used only by non-educated people and slaves.
In that period, it shared many features common with Portuguese, its lexicon was poor. Each type of contact with a new language introduced new vocabulary to the pidgin which is commonly used until today. In the early period, Nigerian Pidgin English was used mainly in trade contacts. Then its usage started to extend and during the years of the construction of the Nigerian state it has remained a language of special areas of communication, when it was clearly differentiated from official English in its standard norm. The increasing role of English in Nigeria resulted in the development of a regional variety of standard English the so-called Nigerian English in which the context of Nigerian languages including Nigerian Pidgin English is reflected Odumuh It has become a powerful multi- ethnic communication tool in the society, where more than languages are spoken.
It also functions as a means of communication for diaspora communities outside the country. In recent years, a new term — Naija — has been coined for the creole version of the language, which in some parts of the country has gained the status of a mother tongue. The language is usually functions in the spoken medium but it also exists in a written form. The term Naija i. Nigeria refers to the idea of the establishment of NPE as a national language. However, there is still a long way ahead before the idea will be implemented. English proper in mind […], but a great number of Nigerians simply do not treat the English language as a distinct entity, i.
As far as the pronunciation, which makes English words barely recognizable, is concerned, some phrases appear and sound like English but they have adifferent meaning. Moreover, its grammar features many gaps and innovative structures in relation to the English patterns. Among them, the use of meaningful items to express grammatical functions is the most transparent.
source link The difference between them is based on the perspective which has determined studies in NPE as a contact language. The first phase constitutes the period when the language was examined from the perspective of the English language.
In this phase NPE was treated as broken English. Therefore, it was analysed in the light of simplification of the English language rather than in terms of its own innovations. All structures, which might have their source in a West African substrate, were treated as bastardization of the Standard English language Agheyisi Similarly, the adapting of English lexemes to the role of grammatical markers was perceived as a consequence of the insufficient familiarity with Standard English rather than an innovation or a result of the influence of West African languages.
In general, in this period the language has not been comprehensively examined. As the language has started to develop dynamically and the amount of its speakers has grown, there arose a need to standardize it and describe it. The researchers began to examine the morphology and syntax of Nigerian Pidgin English Barbag-Stoll , Poplack In this period many other publications related to the Nigerian Pidgin English structure have been written.
In this context, the question of language unification and standard has arisen. In the conference on its standardization Ofulue , Esizimetor took place in Ibadan, where the concept of Naija as a fully-developed language was discussed. At this stage it was also noticed that there are varieties dialects of Nigerian Pidgin English depending on the area in which it is used Ativie The ongoing interest in the study in NPE has extended the scope of research in the decades which followed.
The investigation was oriented at comparative aspects Burg , Odimegwu and the examinatuon of the structures of NPE which are characteristic of African languages. Special attention was devoted to structures such as: ideophones Ofulue , the TAM system Mowarin , copulas Mazzoli , reduplication Ugot, Ogundipe , serial verb constructions Dillon , conceptualization of body parts Corum , negation patterns Deuber , location marking by nominal-derived spatial items Corum The last, fourth stage may be described as having to do with a growing interest in the so-called areal features.
Serial verb constructions Hollington , conceptualization of body parts Hollington , the use of the verbs of speaking in the function of a complementizer Frajzyngier , negation marking, location marking by nominal-derived spatial items Corum are perceived as common in the languages of West Africa, but they are also relevant to Nigerian Pidgin English.
An Examination of the areal features will bring us closer to an answer to the question about the extent of the influence of the languages of the area upon the newly developing language. Nigerian Pidgin English as a creole-like language Pidgins and creoles constitute a separate group, which sometimes is identified as a representation of mixed languages.